Political pressure on journalists risks undermining media freedom progress in Kosovo

ECPMF

17 November 2022

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Albanian translation available here.

 

International media freedom and journalists organisations warn that while significant progress has been made by the current government in depoliticising the public broadcaster, regulatory bodies and the legislative framework for the media environment, toxic rhetoric and smear campaigns against media, underfunding of public broadcaster and lack of transparency risk undermining the progress.

 

16 November 2022

Following a two-day fact-finding mission to Pristina on 15-16 November 2022, the partners of the Council of Europe’s Platform on Safety of Journalists today publish their findings on media freedom and the safety of journalists in Kosovo.

 

During the visit the organisations met with the journalist association, editors and journalists, ministers and government officials, judicial authorities, police, representatives of the parliamentary media committee, regulatory bodies, the privacy and information agency and public broadcaster. 

 

Our assessment is that overall Kosovo continues to have a vibrant and pluralistic media environment. Significant progress has been made in recent years in strengthening the legal framework, which is mostly in line with European and international standards and contains strong constitutional safeguards.

 

Positive developments include the process of depoliticisation of the public broadcaster Radio Television of Kosovo (RTK) by the Kosovo Assembly via the appointment of new members of the board in a transparent, and merit-based selection process. Initial steps towards improving the functional independence of the Independent Media Commission (IMC) through professional appointments are also welcome.

 

At the judicial level, a new strategic action plan on prioritisation of cases involving journalists is also a positive development, as is the extension of free legal aid to journalists and media workers. Information the delegation received about training for prosecutors, judges, lawyers and police aimed at handling cases involving journalists and media in line with Council of Europe standards  is welcome.

 

Our organisations commend the government of Kosovo for its concrete action to provide shelter for Ukrainian journalists in exile as part of the Journalists-in-Residence program, which serves as a model of solidarity for other European countries to follow.

 

During the mission, media stakeholders expressed a high level of trust in the work of the Information and Privacy Agency and its Commissioner, who is overseeing the implementation of the legal framework on access to information and data protection.

 

All stakeholders the delegation met during the visit expressed an openness to cooperate more closely with the Council of Europe’s Platform for the Safety of Journalists to enhance public authorities’ accountability and benefit from international best practices.

 

Despite significant progress in these areas, the safety of journalists and impunity for crimes against journalists continue to pose challenges for the overall media freedom landscape. While physical assaults remain rare, serious threats were documented in the last year by the Association of Journalists of Kosovo. The judicial process in criminal and civil cases remains slow and journalists expressed concern over the lack of prosecutions.

 

Media representatives noted as a particular concern that divisive rhetoric and smear campaigns directed at journalists by some politicians and public officials, including from the governing party, is creating a growing climate of hostility against the media. They said these verbal attacks and attempts by political figures to divide the journalistic community, or portray certain media as political actors, could lead to threats, online harassment and physical violence.

 

The safety of all journalists reporting on developments in northern Kosovo is an area of serious concern. Access to documents and information in the Serbian language is challenging. Engrained impunity for the disappeared and murdered journalists between 1998 and 2005 must be tackled. While the delegation heard high-level commitments from prosecution to continue these investigations, no evidence of meaningful progress in these cases was presented.

 

Despite positive reforms in independent governance, the public broadcaster RTK lacks a sustainable financing model. Annual funding was cut in the previous year and is currently at its lowest point in a decade, which is undermining the ability of the public broadcaster to meet programming requirements and ensure the public broadcaster can fulfill its public service mission. Long-awaited amendments to the Law on the Radio and Television of Kosovo remain stalled.

 

In the field of media regulation, the delegation heard serious concerns about the process of the upcoming recruitment of the remaining members of the IMC by the National Assembly. If conducted non-transparently, this would undermine the previous appointment process and severely harm public trust in the institution.

 

During the mission, media representatives expressed growing concern over the deteriorating climate for transparency and access to information under the current government. Journalists noted in particular a lack of options for communication with officials or the ability to regularly question ministers and the prime minister at press conferences. Media stakeholders also described a lack of political will to foster a climate of transparent governance in relation to media. Appeals to the Information and Privacy Agency over the refusal or inability of public bodies to provide access to public documents have increased significantly in 2022.

 

The delegation also notes that while defamation is decriminalised, strategic lawsuits against public participation (SLAPPs) against media and journalists continue to pose a serious threat to independent media. We welcome the commitment of the Minister of Justice to take measures to implement international standards on Anti-SLAPP.

The delegation was composed of representatives from ARTICLE 19, the Committee to Protect Journalists, the European Broadcasting Union, the European Centre for Press and Media Freedom, the European Federation of Journalists, the International Press Institute and Reporters Without Borders.

Politički pritisak na novinare rizikuje da ugrozi napredak u slobodi medija na Kosovu 

Međunarodne grupe za slobodu medija i novinarske organizacije upozoravaju da iako je aktuelna vlast napravila značajan napredak u depolitizaciji javnog emitera, regulatornih tela i zakonodavnog okvira za medijsko okruženje, toksična retorika i klevetničke kampanje protiv medija, kao i nedovoljno finansiranje javnog emitera i nedostatak transparentnosti rizikuju podrivanje napretka.

 

16 Novembar 2022.

Nakon dvodnevne misjije utvrđivanja činjenica u Prištini, 15. i 16. novembra 2022, Savet Evrope i partnerske organizacije okupljene oko platforme Bezbedni novinari danas objavljuju preliminarne zaključke koji se tiču slobode medija i bezbednosti novinara na Kosovu.    

 

Tokom posete, organizacije su se susrele sa predstavnicima medijskog udruženja, novinarima i urednicima, ministriima i predstavnicima vlade i zakonodavnih tela, policije, komiteta za medije u paralmentu, regulatornih tela, agencije za Privatizaciju i informacije, i javnog servisa. 

 

Naša procena je da u najvećoj meri, na Kosovu nastavlja da postoji vibrantno i pluralističko medijsko okruženje.  Poslednjih godina, značajan napredak je postignut na jačanju pravnog okvira koji je  uglavnom u skladu sa evropskim i međunarodnim standardima, i koji sadrži jake ustavne garancije.  

 

Pozitivni pomaci uključuju proces depolitizacije javnog emitera Radio Televizije Kosova (RTK) od strane Skupštine Kosova koja je na transparentan način imenovala nove članova odbora birajući ih prema zaslugama. Početni koraci ka unapređenju funkcionalne nezavisnosti Nezavisne medijske komisije (NKM) kroz imenovanja profesionalaca su takođe dobra vest.

 

Na pravosudnom nivou, novi strateški akcioni plan koji daje prioritet slučajevima koji se odnose na novinare takođe predstavlja pozitivan pomak, kao i proširenje besplatne pravne pomoći novinarima i medijskim radnicima. Informacije koje je delegacija dobila o obuci za tužioce, sudije, advokate i policiju za postupanje u predmetima koji uključuju novinare i medije su u skladu sa standardima Saveta Evrope i kao takve su dobrodošle. 

 

Naše organizacije pohvaljuju vladu Kosova za konkretnu pomoć obezbeđivanja utočišta za ukrajinske novinare u egzilu u okviru programa gostujućih novinara, koji predstavlja značajan primer solidarnosti i za druge evropske zemlje.

 

Tokom misije, medijski akteri su izrazili visok nivo poverenja u rad Agencije za informacije i privatnost i njene poverenice zadužene za implementaciju pravnog okvira koji se tiče pristupa informacijama i zaštite podataka.

 

Svi akteri sa kojima se delegacija susrela tokom posete izrazili su otvorenost za bližu saradnju sa Platformom za bezbednost novinara Saveta Evrope da bi se povećala odgovornost javnih delatnika i da bi bilo koristi od najboljih primera iz međunarodne prakse.

 

Uprkos značajnom napretku u navedenim oblastima, bezbednost novinara i nekažnjivost zločina nad novinarima i dalje predstavljaju izazove za celokupni utisak o slobodi medija. Dok su fizički napadi i dalje retki, Udruženje novinara Kosova je tokom prošle godine dokumentovalo nekoliko ozbiljnih slučajeva.  Sudski procesi u krivičnim i parničnim predmetima su i dalje spori i novinari su izrazili zabrinutost zbog izostanka krivičnog gonjenja.

 

Predstavnici medija su izrazili posebnu zabrinutost zbog jezika podela i klevetničkih kampanja koje prema novinarima dolaze od strane nekih političara i javnih zvaničnika, uključujući i pripadnike vladajuće stranke, što dovodi do stvaranja i porasta klime neprijateljstva prema medijima. Rekli su da ovakvi verbalni napadi kao i pokušaji nekih javnih ličnosti da podele medijsku zajednicu, ili da prikažu pojedine medije kao političke aktere, mogu dovesti do pretnji, uznemiravanja na internetu i fizičkog nasilja.

 

Bezbednost svih novinara koji izveštavaju o dešavanjima na severu Kosova izaziva ozbiljnu zabrinutost. Pristup dokumentima i informcijama na srpskom jeziku predstavlja izazov. Sa ukorenjenom nekažnjivošću, kada su u pitanju nestali i ubijeni novinari u periodu između 1998. i 2005. godine se mora uhvatiti u koštac. Iako je delegacija čula da se tužilaštvo na visokom nivou obavezalo da će se ove istrage nastaviti, nisu predstavljeni nikakvi dokazi o značajnom napretku u ovim slučajevima.

 

Uprkos pozitivnim reformama kada je u pitanju nezavisnost upravljanja, javni emiter RTK i dalje nema održiv model finansiranja. Godišnje finansiranje je smanjeno u prethodnoj godini i trenutno je na najnižoj tački u poslednjoj deceniji, što smanjuje sposobnost novog odbora da ispuni programske zahteve i da obezbedi da emiter ispuni svoju misiju javnog servisa. Dugo očekivane izmene Zakona o Radio-televiziji Kosova su zaustavljene.

 

U oblasti medijske regulative, medijska zajednica je izrazila ozbiljnu zabrinutost povodom izbora preostalih članova u IMC od strane Narodne skupštine. Ako ovaj izbor ne bi bio sproveden transparentno, to bi ugrozilo prethodni  proces imenovanja i ozbiljno narušilo poverenje javnosti u instituciju.

 

Tokom misije, predstavnici medija su izrazili povećanu zabrinutost usled smanjenja transparentnosti i otežanog pristupa informacijama do koga je došlo pod aktuelnom vladom. Novinari su posebno istakli nedostatak mogućnosti komunikacije sa zvaničnicima ili mogućnost redovnog postavljanja pitanja ministrima i premijeru na konferencijama za štampu. Medijski radnici su takođe opisali nedostatak političke volje da se podstakne klima transparentnog upravljanja. Žalbe Agenciji za informacije i privatnost zbog odbijanja ili nemogućnosti javnih organa da omoguće pristup javnim dokumentima značajno su porasle 2022. godine.

 

Delegacija takođe primećuje da iako je kleveta dekriminalizovana, strateške tužbe protiv učešća javnosti (SLAPP) protiv novinara i medija i dalje predstavljaju ozbiljnu pretnju nezavisnim medijima. Stoga, pozdravljamo posvećenost ministra pravde da preduzme mere za primenu međunarodnih Anti-SLAPP standarda. 

Delegaciju su činili predstavnici ARTICLE 19, Komiteta za zaštitu novinara, Evropske radiodifuzne unije, Evropskog centra za slobodu štampe i medija, Evropske federacije novinara, Međunarodnog instituta za štampu (IPI) i Reportera bez granica.

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